What is a small cell or femtocell?

Small cells are fully featured, short range mobile phone basestations used to complement mobile phone service from larger macrocell towers. These range from very compact residential femtocells, the size of a paperback book and connected using standard domestic internet broadband through to larger equipment used inside commercial offices or outdoor public spaces. They offer excellent mobile phone coverage and data speeds at home, in the office and public areas for both voice and data. Small cells have been developed for both 3G and the newer 4G/LTE radio technologies.

The term femtocell was originally used to describe residential products, with picocell being used for enterprise/business premises and metrocell for public/outdoor spaces. As the underlying femtocell technology expanded to address this wider scope, the term small cell was adopted to cover all aspects.

Standalone or integrated femtocells

Early residential femtocell products look very much like WiFi broadband modems, needing only two cables - one for power and one internet connection.

In the past, several vendors such as Thomson, Netgear, Pirelli, Cisco and others integrated the femtocell with other features such as DSL modem, WiFi and even IPTV into a single box. Virtually none of these combined solutions have succeeded. The vast majority of residential femtocells sold to date are standalone.

Larger enterprise and metrocells are also standalone, having sturdy casing and better protection against weather and operating in unsupervised areas. 

Locked to a single mobile phone network

Unlike WiFi, these devices use licenced radio spectrum, so must be operated and controlled by a mobile phone company. Thus it will work with only one mobile phone operator, and thus encourages all users in a household or business enterprise to switch to the same network operator.

When in range of the small cell, the mobile phone will automatically detect it and use it in preference to the larger macrocell cellsites. Calls are made and received in exactly the same way as before, except that the signals are sent encrypted from the small cell via the public or private broadband IP network to one of the mobile operators main switching centres. Making and receiving calls uses the same procedures and telephone numbers, and all the standard features (call divert, text messaging, web browsing) are available in the same way - indeed data services should operate more quickly and efficiently due to the short range involved.

Low power but high quality

Small cells operate at very low radio power levels - less than cordless phones, WiFi or some other household equipment. This substantially increases the battery life, both on standby and talktime. Since they are so much closer to the handset or mobile device, call quality is excellent and data devices can operate at full speed. The smallest femtocells can handle up to 4 simultaneous active calls from different users, with most indoor products having a standard capacity of 8. Larger small cell designs for business (enterprise) or public areas use can handle 16, 32 or more concurrent calls or data sessions. A few of the latest multi-mode 3G and LTE small cells can cope with up to 64 3G and 128 LTE concurrent active sessions. Some products can handle even more.  These numbers are in addition to passive users not actively making or receiving voice or data calls.

Open or restricted access

Restrictions can be applied on who can access a small cell. Residential femtocell owners may be concerned about paying additional charges for wireline internet broadband where a quota applies - even though this would equate to many long voice calls or heavy data service use. For this reason, many residential femtocells include a facility to restrict service to a whitelist of up to 30 specified telephone numbers. Enterprise use is more commonly open to all, including visitors, but may prioritise phones belonging to the business itself. Urban and rural small cells are always fully open access.

Secure and self-managing

Small cells encrypt all voice and data sent and received, ensuring a high level of protection from sniffing or snooping.

In order to reduce operational and installation costs, these units are self installing and use a variety of clever tricks to sense which frequency to transmit on and power level to use.

Unlike large outdoor mobile phone basestations (masts), femtocells don't require specialist RF planning engineers to design, calibrate or configure themselves - minimising the ongoing cost of maintaining them. They do have remote management from the network operator, who can upgrade the configuration and software as required.

Doesn't require special phones

They are compatible with existing standard 3G and 4G mobile phones and are not restricted to any specific models. No additional software is required to enable the phone to work with a small cell.


Most of the excitement originated around the 3G UMTS/HSPA mobile phone technology, deployed in almost every country worldwide today and which includes the ability for high speed data services. More recently LTE small cells have become available, with a few models capable of handling both. Generally speaking, 3G is more widely used indoors, with urban small cells focussed mostly on LTE. This is because of the tighter integration and co-ordination between streetside small cells and nearby macrocells sharing the same frequencies, something with LTE was designed specifically to cope with although there are a few 3G urban small cell deployments.

Read more about the various small cell system architectures, vendors and operators on the rest of this site.

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#1 sal.j. Rampelli said: 
Is there ONE femcell for all cell phones (ATT, sprint and Verizon)?
0 Quote 2012-03-09 23:23
#2 ThinkSmallCell said: 
ATT has a different mobile phone technology (GSM and UMTS) from Sprint/Verizon (CDMA), so this means radically different femtocell products have to be used and would not be compatible. The same product could be used by both Sprint and Verizon (and Samsung has supplied femtocells to both), but today all femtocells are locked into one network and transmit using their dedicated frequencies. So it's not possible to have a single femtocell that is accessible from any network today. Perhaps in the future, there might be some arrangement for roaming or sharing.
+1 Quote 2012-09-04 11:28
#3 Phil Moora said: 
Is a LTE femtocell available from any wireless service provider (att, verizon, etc.) currently?
0 Quote 2012-11-16 19:38
#4 ThinkSmallCell said: 
Residential LTE femtocells aren't available anywhere yet. In Japan, NTT DoCoMo just announced they plan to launch one next month (December 2012), which will be the world's first. Since these need very good wireline broadband to reach their full potential, they would only be of interest to those with fibre to the home. The industry is concentrating much more on the high traffic urban areas, where LTE metrocells are already in use (Korea is one example) and the US operators have announced extensive investment plans to deploy then in the near future.
+1 Quote 2012-11-27 13:02
#5 Sibuea said: 
Is there any option in Femtocell we applied at home to be Open or Closed (with password) as we do in wifi?

Also how do we can solve the interference problem as it was implemented?
+2 Quote 2013-03-19 16:12
#6 ThinkSmallCell said: 
@Sibuea: The Open or Closed access section above explains that the femtocell can restrict usage to a shortlist of approved mobile phones. This whitelist is administered via a webpage. There is no setup or password required or used on the mobile phone itself.
+1 Quote 2013-03-28 14:54
#7 Mark said: 
What enables anyone to make use of femto cell technology?
+1 Quote 2013-12-29 07:04
#8 Jayant Dusane said: 
3G suffers from inadequate indoor signal penetration, leading to poor coverage in the indoor environment where consumers spend two-thirds of their time. Poor coverage diminishes the quality of voice and video applications and slows down high-speed data services. Dropped calls and time-consuming downloads lead to customer churn as consumers, who expect high quality of service, pick up their landline phones or switch to other mobile carriers in search of uninterrupted voice calls, clear video images and faster downloads
To keep customers satisfied, 3G carriers have increased capacity through the construction of additional macro/femto/sma ll cell sites
+1 Quote 2014-11-20 06:40
#9 Soniya said: 
Can a organization who is only data service provider & ISP use this? or is it only for mobile companies?
-1 Quote 2016-03-23 18:30
#10 Mary McGuirk said: 
for a small rural community in the Midwest (within 20 miles of a relatively large city) I have been trying to get a BALL PARK figure to find out what it would cost to get reasonable broadband and cell service to a community of like up to 200 people, and haven't even been able to get a CLUE. Could you give me at least an estimate?
0 Quote 2018-05-22 18:37
  • 4




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    The term Enterprise addresses any non-residential in-building including hotels, convention centres, transport hubs, offices, hospitals and retail outlets. It's not just intended for businesses to

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    Urban small cells (sometimes also named metrocells) are compact and discrete mobile phone basestations, unobstrusively located in urban areas. They can be mounted on lampposts, positioned on the

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    A rural small cell is a low power mobile phone base station designed to bring mobile phone service to small pockets of population in remote rural areas. These could be hamlets, small villages or

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